Adrenergic Agents 

Adrenergic Agents 

ISOPRENALINE

It is beta-receptor stimulant, which stimulates the heart and causes tachycardia.
It relaxes the smooth muscles particularly the bronchial and GIT. It is mainly used in bronchial asthma, in the treatment of shock and as a cardiac stimulant in heart block. 

ORCIPRENALINE
Is a potent β-adrenergic agonist.
Receptor sites in the bronchi and bronchioles are more sensitive to the drug than those in the heart and blood vessels.

AMPHETAMINE 

increases the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Amphetamine is a potent CNS stimulant and causes alertness, insomnia, increased concentration, euphoria or dysphoria and increased work capacity.

Amphetamines are drugs of abuse and can produce behavioural abnormalities and can precipitate psychosis. 

PHENYLEPHRINE
It is used as a nasal decongestant and mydriatic agent and also in the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

UTERINE RELAXANTS (TOCOLYTICS)

ISOXSUPRINE
Isoxsuprine has a potent inhibitory effect on vascular and uterine smooth muscle and has been used in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea, threatened abortion, premature labour and peripheral vascular diseases. 
 

Related Questions ANS Drugs

CHOLINERGIC DRUGS

Produce actions similar to Acetylcholine (Ach)

Cholinergic Agonists
1 Acetylcholine  2 Methacholine  3. Carbachol 4 Bethnechol

Alkaloids
1.Muscarine 2 Pilocarpine 3. Arecoline

MECHANISM OF ACTION
I Heart- hyperpolarizes the SA node and decreases the rate of diastolic depolarisation. thus the frequcncy of impulse generation is decreased. bradycardia.
2 Blood vessels- vasodilatation
3. Smooth muscles - increased contraction. increased tone. increased peristalsis.
4. Glands- increased sweating. increased lacrimation.
5 Eye- contraction of the circular muscle of iris (miosis).

Nicotinic action
Autonomic ganglia - stimu1ation of sympathetic and parasympathetic system.
Skeletalmuscles - contraction of fibres.
CNS..No effect as it does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

Toxic effects
Flushing. sweating.salivation. cramps. belching. involuntary mictuirition. defaccation.

Contraindication
1.. Anginapectoris- decreases the coronary flow.
2 Pepticulcer - increases the gastric secretion
3 Asthma- bronchoconstriction
4 Hyperthyroidisim

Cholinomimetic Alkaloids
Pilocarpine
Prominent muscarinic actions. causes marked sweating. salivation. Increase of secretions. small doses cause fall in BP but higher doses increase in BP. Applied to the eye cause miosis. fall in intraocular tension

Uses
I. .Open angle glaucoma
2. To counteract mydriasis

Anticholinesterase
They inhibit the enzyme cholinestrase and prolong the action of Ach

Reversible 
Physostigamine, Ncostigamine, Pyridostigamine, Ambenonium, Edrophonium, Demecarium

Irreverible
Dyflos. Echothiphate.

Pharmacological Actions
I Ganglia - persistent depolarisation of ganglionic nicotinic receptors.
2 CVS - unprcdictable as Muscarinic-I receptor causes bradycardia but ganglionic stimulation
tachycardia.
3. Skeletal muscles - as Ach is not destroyed and rebinds to the same receptor or it diffuses on to the neighbouring receptors to cause repetitive firing. twitching and fasciculations.

Uses 
I As miotic
a) Glaucoma :  Acute congestive (narrow angle) glaucoma,  Chronic simple (wide angle)  glaucoma
b) Counter act  atropine mydriasis.
2) Post operative paralytic ileus
3) Myasthenia gravis
4) Postoperativedecurarization
5) Cobra bite
6) Belladona poisoning
7) Other drug overdoses

PSEUDOEPHEDRINE

Pseudoephedrine appears to have less pressor activity and weaker central nervous system effects than ephedrine. It has agonist activity at both β1  and β2 adrenoceptors, leading to increased cardiac output and relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle.

Pseudoephedrine is rapidly absorbed throughout the body. It is eliminated largely unchanged in urine by N-demethylation.

It is indicated in symptomatic relief from stuffed nose, respiratory tract congestion, bronchospasm associated with asthma, bronchitis and other similar disorders.

DOBUTAMINE

It is a derivative of dopamine and has relatively β1 -selective action and it also activates α1 receptors and do not have D1  receptor agonistic property. It increases the force of myocardial contraction and cardiac output without significant change in heart rate, blood pressure and peripheral resistance. It is used as inotropic agent and for short term management of CHF and also in patients who are unresponsive to digitalis.

Beta - Adrenoceptor blocking Agents

These are the agents which block the action of sympathetic nerve stimulation and circulating sympathomimetic amines on the beta adrenergic receptors. 

At the cellular level, they inhibit the activity of the membrane cAMP. The main effect is to reduce cardiac activity by diminishing β1 receptor stimulation in the heart. This decreases the rate and force of myocardial contraction of the heart, and decreases the rate of conduction of impulses through the conduction system.

Beta blockers may further be classified on basis of their site of action into following two main classes namely 

cardioselective beta blockers (selective beta 1 blockers) 

non selective beta 1 + beta 2 blockers 

Classification for beta adrenergic blocking agents.

A. Non-selective (β1+β2)

Propranolol  Sotalol  Nadolol Timolol  Alprenolol Pindolol 

With additional alpha blocking activity

Labetalol  Carvedilol  

B. β1 Selective (cardioselective)

Metoprolol  Atenolol  Bisoprolol  Celiprolol  

C. β2  Selective

Butoxamine 


Mechanisms of Action of beta blocker

Beta adrenoceptor Blockers competitively antagonize the responses to catecholamines that are mediated by beta-receptors and other
adrenomimetics at β-receptors 

Because the β-receptors of the heart are primarily of the β1 type and those in the pulmonary and vascular smooth muscle are β2 receptors, β1-selective antagonists are frequently referred to as cardioselective blockers. 


β-adrenergic receptor blockers (β blockers)
1. Used more often than α blockers.
2. Some are partial agonists (have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity).
3. Propranolol is the prototype of nonselective β blockers.
4. β blocker effects: lower blood pressure, reduce angina, reduce risk after myocardial infarction, reduce heart rate and force, have antiarrhythmic effect, cause hypoglycemia in diabetics, lower intraocular pressure.
5. Carvedilol: a nonselective β blocker that also blocks α receptors; used for heart failure.
 

ISOPRENALINE

It is beta-receptor stimulant, which stimulates the heart and causes tachycardia.
It relaxes the smooth muscles particularly the bronchial and GIT. It is mainly used in bronchial asthma, in the treatment of shock and as a cardiac stimulant in heart block. 

ORCIPRENALINE
Is a potent β-adrenergic agonist.
Receptor sites in the bronchi and bronchioles are more sensitive to the drug than those in the heart and blood vessels.

AMPHETAMINE 

increases the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Amphetamine is a potent CNS stimulant and causes alertness, insomnia, increased concentration, euphoria or dysphoria and increased work capacity.

Amphetamines are drugs of abuse and can produce behavioural abnormalities and can precipitate psychosis. 

PHENYLEPHRINE
It is used as a nasal decongestant and mydriatic agent and also in the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

UTERINE RELAXANTS (TOCOLYTICS)

ISOXSUPRINE
Isoxsuprine has a potent inhibitory effect on vascular and uterine smooth muscle and has been used in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea, threatened abortion, premature labour and peripheral vascular diseases.