Neutralization Test

Neutralization Test

Neutralization Test

These are basically of two types:

•    Toxin neutralization
•    Virus neutralization


In toxin neutralization homologous anti-bodies prevent the biological effect of toxin as observed in vivo in experimental animals (e.g. detection of toxin of Clostridia and Corynebacterium diphthenae) or by in vitro method (e.g. Nagler’s method).

In virus neutralization test various methods are available by which identity of virus can be established as well as antibody against a virus can be estimated.

Related Questions Sterilization and Disinfection

Autoantibodies

Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA)    Systemic Lupus
Anti-dsDNA, anti-Smith               Specific for Systemic Lupus
Anti-histone                                 Drug-induced Lupus
Anti-IgG                                       Rheumatoid arthritis
Anti-neutrophil                             Vasculitis
Anti-centromere                           Scleroderma (CREST)
Anti-Scl-70                                   Sclerderma (diffuse)
Anti-mitochondria                         1oary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-gliadin                                   Celiac disease
Anti-basement membrane            Goodpasture’s syndrome
Anti-epithelial cell                          Pemphigus vulgaris
Anti-microsomal                            Hashimoto’s thryoiditis

CROSS INFECTION AND STERLIZATION IN DENTISTRY

Cross infection is defined as the transmission of infectious agents amongst patients and staff with in hospital environment.

Routes of Infection 
Two routes are important : transdermal  and respiratory. 

 In transdermal route microorganisms enter the tissues of the recipient by means of injection through intact skin or mucosa (usually due to an accident involving a sharp instrument) or via defects in the skin e.g. recent cuts and abrasions.
 
Microorganisms causing cross infection in dentistry

Transmitted through skin 

Bacteria : Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus

Viruses :Hepatitis virus, HIV ,Herpes simplex virus, Mumps, Measles , Epstein-Barr virus

Fungi: Dermatomycoses, Candidiasis, 

Transmitted through aerosols

Bordetella pertussis, Myco.tuberculosis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Influenza virus
Rhinovirus,  Rubella 
 

DISINFECTION AND STERILIZATION

•    Sterilization is the best destruction or com removal_of all forms of micro organisms.
•    Disinfection is the destruction of many microorganisms but usually the b spores.
•    Antisepsis is the destruction or inhibition of microorganisms in living tissues thereby limiting or preventing the harmful effect of infection.
•    Astatic Agent  would only inhibit the growth of microorganisms (bacteriostatic, fungistatic, sporostatic).
•    Acidal agent would kill the microorganism (bactericidal. virucidal, fungicidal)
•    Sterilants are the chemicals which under controlled conditions can kill sporinQ bacteria.
 

Complement Fixation Test (CFT)

This test is based upon two properties of the complement viz:

a. Complent combines with all antigen-antibody complexes whether or not it is required for that reaction
b. Complement is needed in immunolytic reaction.

Test system

It contains an antigen and a serum suspected to be having antibody to that antigen. The serum is heat treated prior to the test to destroy its complement. Complement Is added in measured quantity to this system. This complement is the form of guinea pig serum which is considered a rich source of complement. The test system is incubated.

Indicator system

To test system, after incubation, is added the indicator system which consists of sheep
RBCs and antibody to sheep RBCs (haemolysin) and another incubation is allowed.
If there is specific antibody in the test system, it will bind to antigen and to this complex the complement will also get fixed. Hence, no complement will be available to combine with indicator system which though contains RBCs and their specific antibody, cannot undergo haemolysis unless complement gets attached. Absence of haemolysis shall indicated positive test or presence of specific antibody in the serum which has been added in the test system. Erythrocytes lysis is obtained in negative test.

Method of Sterilization for common items

Autoclaving :  Animal cages, Sugar tubes, Lab. Coats, Cotton , Filters, Instruments Culture media, Rubber, Gloves , Stopper, Tubing, Slides,  Syringe and Wax needles , Test tubes, Enamel metal trays ,Wire baskets, Wood, Tongue depressor, Applicator, Endodontic instruments, Orthodontic pliers , Orthodontic kits, Saliva ejector, Handpieces Cavitron heads, Steel burs, Steel tumbler, Hand instruments    

Hot air oven

Beakers, Flasks, Petri dish, Slides, Syringes, Test tubes, Glycerine, Needles ,Oil, Paper Saliva ejector, Matrix Band

Ethylene oxide

Fabric, Bedding, Blanket, Clothing, Matteresses, Pillows, Disposable instruments , Instruments, Blades, Knives, Scalpels, Scissors ,Talcum powder, Books, Cups, plates , Plastics., Flask, Petridish, Tubes, Tubing, Rubber , catheters, Drains, Gloves ,Special items - Bronchoscope, Cystoscope, Heart lung machine

Glutaraldehyde

Orthodontic kits, Orthodontic pliers , Steel burrs, 3 in 1 syringe tips ,Cystoscope ,Endoscope

Filtration

Antibiotics, Serum, Vaccines