Speech

Speech

o    English: all speech sounds produced by making exhaled air audible

o    Two ways of producing sound
    at larynx
    further up in vocal tract (tongue, lips)
    
o    How to produce sound at larynx
    changes in breathing: regulate airstream from lungs to atmosphere by changing movements of vocal folds, pharynx, soft-palate, tongue, lips and jaws
    
•    inhalation: take in greater volume more quickly, abduct folds

•    expiration: variable force; use muscles of inhalation to control rate of expiration, adduct

    How to vibrate vocal cords
    
•    NOT rhythmic contraction of laryngeal muscles: would be impossible b/c frequenceies of virbration
•    Changes in air pressure cause vibrations


    o    Adduct folds increase in subglottal pressure force folds apart folds sucked back together (Bernouilli effect)
•    The vibration of vocal cords disturbs airareas of low pressure (rarefaction) alternating with areas of high pressure (compression)
•    Changes in pressure sound at ears
•    Sine waves

    o    Changes in amplitudes: loudness

    o    Changes in frequency: pitch

    o    Normal sounds have fundamental frequency, overtones or harmonics

    o    Mass of folds: critical in voice
    Low pitch of lion’s roar: due to massive fibrous pad that forms part of vocal cords
    Men: more massive vocal cords
    Larger foldsslow vibrationdeeper voice

    o    Producing vowels and constants
    Most vowels are “voiced”: vocal folds produce sounds
    Consonants: can be “voiced” (Z) or “non-voiced” (S)
•    Use higher regions of vocal tract to control by stopping, restricting airflow from vocal folds; use lips, teethaperiodic sound

o    Vocal folds and resonators emphasize and deemphasize certain frequencies
    Never hear sounds produced at vocal foldsevery sound changed by passage thru vocal tract: sinuses/resonating chambers
    Howling monkeys: large hyoid bonepowerful resonator

    o    Age-related changes in voice
    
    Infant larynx is smaller, different proportions
•    Arytenoids are proportionately larger
•    Smaller vocal apparatushigher pitch
•    Larynx sits higher easier to breathe thru nose
    Abrupt change in larynx at pubertycan’t control voice
    Older adult: normal degenerative changes in lamina propria, ossification of thyroid cartilagechanges in fundamental frequency
    Lose your voice vocal fold are irritated
•    Can’t adduct foldsair escapes

o    Singing v. speaking
    Singing: greater thoracic pressure and uneven breathing with changes in resonators

    o    Whispering
    Intercartilaginous portions of vocal folds: open to allow air to escapelesser subglottal pressureslittle vibration of foldslittle tonal quality, low volume

    o    Falsetto
    Allowing only part of vocal folds to vibrate
    Increase range by training which part of vocal folds to vibrate

    o    Colds
    Mucus secretions add mass to folds—decrease in pitch, can’t adduct folds as well

    o    Surgeryscars, fibrotic changes can interfere with voice

Related Questions Larynx

Intrinsic muscles

    all innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve except cricothyroid: external laryngeal nerve
    adductors of vocal folds: bring folds together at midline

    Transverse and oblique arytenoids: pull arytenoids together
    Lateral cricoartenoids: spin and slide arytenoids up
    only one abductor of vocal folds
    
    Posterior cricoarytenoids—down and up
    adjustors of shape and tension of vocal folds

    Cricothyroid muscle
    
o    superficial to lateral cricoarytenoid
o    tenses vocal folds by tilting thyroid cartilage forward and sliding forward

    Thyroartenoid and vocalis muscles
    
o    vocalis: sometimes treated as medial most fibers of thyroartenoid muscle
o    different fiber directions
    
    lateral: adduct
    medial: change shape of folds
    control voice by bring bringing together different parts of folds


o    as move from epithelium to vocalis muscle, fold becomes stiffer
o    near connections, vocal folds are stiffer
o    vocal fold: complex, multilayered vibrator

Muscles of the larynx

Extrinsic muscles
    suprahyoid: raise larynx, depress mandible for swallowing
    infrahyoid: lower larynx for swallowing
    both stabilize hyoid for tongue movements

o    English: all speech sounds produced by making exhaled air audible

o    Two ways of producing sound
    at larynx
    further up in vocal tract (tongue, lips)
    
o    How to produce sound at larynx
    changes in breathing: regulate airstream from lungs to atmosphere by changing movements of vocal folds, pharynx, soft-palate, tongue, lips and jaws
    
•    inhalation: take in greater volume more quickly, abduct folds

•    expiration: variable force; use muscles of inhalation to control rate of expiration, adduct

    How to vibrate vocal cords
    
•    NOT rhythmic contraction of laryngeal muscles: would be impossible b/c frequenceies of virbration
•    Changes in air pressure cause vibrations


    o    Adduct folds increase in subglottal pressure force folds apart folds sucked back together (Bernouilli effect)
•    The vibration of vocal cords disturbs airareas of low pressure (rarefaction) alternating with areas of high pressure (compression)
•    Changes in pressure sound at ears
•    Sine waves

    o    Changes in amplitudes: loudness

    o    Changes in frequency: pitch

    o    Normal sounds have fundamental frequency, overtones or harmonics

    o    Mass of folds: critical in voice
    Low pitch of lion’s roar: due to massive fibrous pad that forms part of vocal cords
    Men: more massive vocal cords
    Larger foldsslow vibrationdeeper voice

    o    Producing vowels and constants
    Most vowels are “voiced”: vocal folds produce sounds
    Consonants: can be “voiced” (Z) or “non-voiced” (S)
•    Use higher regions of vocal tract to control by stopping, restricting airflow from vocal folds; use lips, teethaperiodic sound

o    Vocal folds and resonators emphasize and deemphasize certain frequencies
    Never hear sounds produced at vocal foldsevery sound changed by passage thru vocal tract: sinuses/resonating chambers
    Howling monkeys: large hyoid bonepowerful resonator

    o    Age-related changes in voice
    
    Infant larynx is smaller, different proportions
•    Arytenoids are proportionately larger
•    Smaller vocal apparatushigher pitch
•    Larynx sits higher easier to breathe thru nose
    Abrupt change in larynx at pubertycan’t control voice
    Older adult: normal degenerative changes in lamina propria, ossification of thyroid cartilagechanges in fundamental frequency
    Lose your voice vocal fold are irritated
•    Can’t adduct foldsair escapes

o    Singing v. speaking
    Singing: greater thoracic pressure and uneven breathing with changes in resonators

    o    Whispering
    Intercartilaginous portions of vocal folds: open to allow air to escapelesser subglottal pressureslittle vibration of foldslittle tonal quality, low volume

    o    Falsetto
    Allowing only part of vocal folds to vibrate
    Increase range by training which part of vocal folds to vibrate

    o    Colds
    Mucus secretions add mass to folds—decrease in pitch, can’t adduct folds as well

    o    Surgeryscars, fibrotic changes can interfere with voice

3 basic functions
o    protection of respiratory tract during swallowing food/air pathways cross.
    epiglottis provides protection
o    control intra-thoracic pressure (in coughing) -    close off airway to build pressure then rapidly open to release stuff
o    production of sound (in speaking, singing, laughing)

Important structures

o    hyoid bone
o    thyroid cartilage
o    arytenoids cartilage: vocal and muscle process
    sits on slope on posterior side of cricoid - spin and slide
o    cricoid cartilage: signet ring
o    thyroepiglottic ligament

Membranes and ligaments

o    membrane: general; ligament: thickening of membrane
o    folds: free edges of membranes or ligaments
o    names: tell you where located

Important membranes:
    quandrangular/vestibular membrane—from epiglottis to arytenoids
•    inferior edge: false vocal fold
    thyrohyoid membrane
    conus elasticus = cricothyroid = cricovocal
•    superior/medial edge = vocal fold
•    vocal ligaments: true folds, top of cricothyroid membrane