Parasympathetic Ganglia Of Head And Neck

Parasympathetic Ganglia Of Head And Neck

Important parasympathetic ganglia in head and neck are :

(i) otic ganglion,
(ii) submandibular ganglion,
(iii) pterygopalatine ganglion
(iv) ciliary ganglion.

Otic Ganglion

Topographically, it is connected to mandibular nerve, while functionally it is related to glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve. Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-By Auriculotemporal nerve.

Sympathetic root:-By sympathetic plexus around middle meningeal artery.

Parasympathetic (secretomotor) root: - This root is by lesser petrosal nerve. Preganglionic fibres begin in inferior salivatory nucleus, pass through glossopharyngeal nerve, then its tympanic branch, tympanic plexus, and the lesser petrosal nerve and relay in otic ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers pass through auriculotemporal nerve and supplies parotid gland.

Motor root :- It is derived from nerve to medial pterygoid which passes unrelayed through ganglion and supplied tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani (Note :- Otic ganglion has a motor root, beside three standard roots of parasympathetic ganglion of head and neck: sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic).

Submandibular Ganglion

Functionally, submandibular ganglion is connected to facial nerve, while topographically it is connected to lingual branch ofmandibular nerve. Its roots are :-

Sensory root: - It is from lingual nerve.

Sympathetic root: - It is from sympathetic plexus around facial artery, which contains postganglionic fibers from superior cervical ganglion of sympathetic trunk.

Secretomotor (parasympathetic) root: - Preganglionic fibers arise from superior salivatory nucleus pass through facial nerve then its chorda tympani branch which joins lingual nerve and relay in submandibular ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers supply :-Directly submandibulargland.
Through lingual nerveSublingual salivary gland and glands in oral cavity.

Pterygopalatine Ganglion (Sphenopalatine Ganglion)
 
It is the largest parasympathetic ganglion, suspended by two roots to maxillary nerve. Functionally, it is related to facial nerve. It is called ganglion of "hay fever". Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-It is from maxillary nerve.

Sympathetic root:-It is sympathetic plexus around internal carotid artery through deep petrosal nerve.

Secretomotor (parasympathetic) root:-Preganglionic fibers arise from lacrimatory nucleus, pass through facial nerve, then to its greater petrosal branch. Greater petrosal nerve unites with deep petrosal nerve (sympathetic fibers) to form nerve to pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve). Fibers reach to pterygopalatine ganglion; only fibers of greater petrosal nerve relay in the ganglion, not of deep petrosal nerve.
Postganglionic fibers supply lacrimal gland and palatal glands, and pharyngeal glands.

Branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion are :-

For lacrimal gland: - Postganglionic fibers pass through zygomatic nerve (branch of maxillary nerve), its zygomaticotemporal division which gives communicating branch to lacrimal nerve for supplying lacrimal gland.

Nasopalatine nerve:-For nasal and palatal glands.

Nasal branches: - For mucous membrane and glands oflateral wall of nasal cavity.

Palatine branches: - One greater palatine and 2-3 lesser palatine branches for glands of soft palate and hard palate.

Orbital branches: - For orbital periosteum.

Pharyngeal branches:-For glands of pharynx.

Ciliary Ganglion

Topographically, ciliary ganglion is related to nasociliary nerve (a branch of ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve), but functionally it is related to oculomotor nerve. Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-It is from nasociliary nerve.

Sympathetic root: - It is from plexus around ophthalmic artery.

Parasympathetic root: - It is from a branch to inferior oblique muscle. These fibers arise from Edinger – Westphalnucleus, join oculomotor nerve and then to its branch to inferior oblique to relay in ciliary ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers pass through short ciliary nerves to supply sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles.

Related Questions Nervous System

Important parasympathetic ganglia in head and neck are :

(i) otic ganglion,
(ii) submandibular ganglion,
(iii) pterygopalatine ganglion
(iv) ciliary ganglion.

Otic Ganglion

Topographically, it is connected to mandibular nerve, while functionally it is related to glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve. Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-By Auriculotemporal nerve.

Sympathetic root:-By sympathetic plexus around middle meningeal artery.

Parasympathetic (secretomotor) root: - This root is by lesser petrosal nerve. Preganglionic fibres begin in inferior salivatory nucleus, pass through glossopharyngeal nerve, then its tympanic branch, tympanic plexus, and the lesser petrosal nerve and relay in otic ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers pass through auriculotemporal nerve and supplies parotid gland.

Motor root :- It is derived from nerve to medial pterygoid which passes unrelayed through ganglion and supplied tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani (Note :- Otic ganglion has a motor root, beside three standard roots of parasympathetic ganglion of head and neck: sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic).

Submandibular Ganglion

Functionally, submandibular ganglion is connected to facial nerve, while topographically it is connected to lingual branch ofmandibular nerve. Its roots are :-

Sensory root: - It is from lingual nerve.

Sympathetic root: - It is from sympathetic plexus around facial artery, which contains postganglionic fibers from superior cervical ganglion of sympathetic trunk.

Secretomotor (parasympathetic) root: - Preganglionic fibers arise from superior salivatory nucleus pass through facial nerve then its chorda tympani branch which joins lingual nerve and relay in submandibular ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers supply :-Directly submandibulargland.
Through lingual nerveSublingual salivary gland and glands in oral cavity.

Pterygopalatine Ganglion (Sphenopalatine Ganglion)
 
It is the largest parasympathetic ganglion, suspended by two roots to maxillary nerve. Functionally, it is related to facial nerve. It is called ganglion of "hay fever". Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-It is from maxillary nerve.

Sympathetic root:-It is sympathetic plexus around internal carotid artery through deep petrosal nerve.

Secretomotor (parasympathetic) root:-Preganglionic fibers arise from lacrimatory nucleus, pass through facial nerve, then to its greater petrosal branch. Greater petrosal nerve unites with deep petrosal nerve (sympathetic fibers) to form nerve to pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve). Fibers reach to pterygopalatine ganglion; only fibers of greater petrosal nerve relay in the ganglion, not of deep petrosal nerve.
Postganglionic fibers supply lacrimal gland and palatal glands, and pharyngeal glands.

Branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion are :-

For lacrimal gland: - Postganglionic fibers pass through zygomatic nerve (branch of maxillary nerve), its zygomaticotemporal division which gives communicating branch to lacrimal nerve for supplying lacrimal gland.

Nasopalatine nerve:-For nasal and palatal glands.

Nasal branches: - For mucous membrane and glands oflateral wall of nasal cavity.

Palatine branches: - One greater palatine and 2-3 lesser palatine branches for glands of soft palate and hard palate.

Orbital branches: - For orbital periosteum.

Pharyngeal branches:-For glands of pharynx.

Ciliary Ganglion

Topographically, ciliary ganglion is related to nasociliary nerve (a branch of ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve), but functionally it is related to oculomotor nerve. Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-It is from nasociliary nerve.

Sympathetic root: - It is from plexus around ophthalmic artery.

Parasympathetic root: - It is from a branch to inferior oblique muscle. These fibers arise from Edinger – Westphalnucleus, join oculomotor nerve and then to its branch to inferior oblique to relay in ciliary ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers pass through short ciliary nerves to supply sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles.

Important parasympathetic ganglia in head and neck are :

(i) otic ganglion,
(ii) submandibular ganglion,
(iii) pterygopalatine ganglion
(iv) ciliary ganglion.

Otic Ganglion

Topographically, it is connected to mandibular nerve, while functionally it is related to glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve. Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-By Auriculotemporal nerve.

Sympathetic root:-By sympathetic plexus around middle meningeal artery.

Parasympathetic (secretomotor) root: - This root is by lesser petrosal nerve. Preganglionic fibres begin in inferior salivatory nucleus, pass through glossopharyngeal nerve, then its tympanic branch, tympanic plexus, and the lesser petrosal nerve and relay in otic ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers pass through auriculotemporal nerve and supplies parotid gland.

Motor root :- It is derived from nerve to medial pterygoid which passes unrelayed through ganglion and supplied tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani (Note :- Otic ganglion has a motor root, beside three standard roots of parasympathetic ganglion of head and neck: sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic).

Submandibular Ganglion

Functionally, submandibular ganglion is connected to facial nerve, while topographically it is connected to lingual branch ofmandibular nerve. Its roots are :-

Sensory root: - It is from lingual nerve.

Sympathetic root: - It is from sympathetic plexus around facial artery, which contains postganglionic fibers from superior cervical ganglion of sympathetic trunk.

Secretomotor (parasympathetic) root: - Preganglionic fibers arise from superior salivatory nucleus pass through facial nerve then its chorda tympani branch which joins lingual nerve and relay in submandibular ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers supply :-Directly submandibulargland.
Through lingual nerveSublingual salivary gland and glands in oral cavity.

Pterygopalatine Ganglion (Sphenopalatine Ganglion)
 
It is the largest parasympathetic ganglion, suspended by two roots to maxillary nerve. Functionally, it is related to facial nerve. It is called ganglion of "hay fever". Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-It is from maxillary nerve.

Sympathetic root:-It is sympathetic plexus around internal carotid artery through deep petrosal nerve.

Secretomotor (parasympathetic) root:-Preganglionic fibers arise from lacrimatory nucleus, pass through facial nerve, then to its greater petrosal branch. Greater petrosal nerve unites with deep petrosal nerve (sympathetic fibers) to form nerve to pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve). Fibers reach to pterygopalatine ganglion; only fibers of greater petrosal nerve relay in the ganglion, not of deep petrosal nerve.
Postganglionic fibers supply lacrimal gland and palatal glands, and pharyngeal glands.

Branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion are :-

For lacrimal gland: - Postganglionic fibers pass through zygomatic nerve (branch of maxillary nerve), its zygomaticotemporal division which gives communicating branch to lacrimal nerve for supplying lacrimal gland.

Nasopalatine nerve:-For nasal and palatal glands.

Nasal branches: - For mucous membrane and glands oflateral wall of nasal cavity.

Palatine branches: - One greater palatine and 2-3 lesser palatine branches for glands of soft palate and hard palate.

Orbital branches: - For orbital periosteum.

Pharyngeal branches:-For glands of pharynx.

Ciliary Ganglion

Topographically, ciliary ganglion is related to nasociliary nerve (a branch of ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve), but functionally it is related to oculomotor nerve. Its roots are:-

Sensory root:-It is from nasociliary nerve.

Sympathetic root: - It is from plexus around ophthalmic artery.

Parasympathetic root: - It is from a branch to inferior oblique muscle. These fibers arise from Edinger – Westphalnucleus, join oculomotor nerve and then to its branch to inferior oblique to relay in ciliary ganglion.

Postganglionic fibers pass through short ciliary nerves to supply sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles.