Types and Source of Haemorrhage

Types and Source of Haemorrhage

Types of Haemorrhage

Hemorrhaging is broken down into four classes

Class I Hemorrhage involves up to 15% of blood volume.
There is typically no change in vital signs and fluid resuscitation is not usually necessary.

Class II Hemorrhage involves 15-30% of total blood volume.
A patient is often tachycardic (rapid heart beat) with a reduction in the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
The body attempts to compensate with peripheral vasoconstriction. Skin may start to look pale and be cool to the touch.
The patient may exhibit slight changes in behavior.
Volume resuscitation with crystalloids (Saline solution or Lactated Ringer's solution) is all that is typically required. Blood transfusion is not usually required.

Class III Hemorrhage involves loss of 30-40% of circulating blood volume.
The patient's blood pressure drops, the heart rate increases, peripheral hypoperfusion (shock) with diminished capillary refill occurs, and the mental status worsens.
Fluid resuscitation with crystalloid and blood transfusion are usually necessary.

Class IV Hemorrhage involves loss of >40% of circulating blood volume.
The limit of the body's compensation is reached and aggressive resuscitation is required to prevent death.


Source of Haemorrhage

- Extra dural haemorrhage - middle meningeal artery
- Sub dural haemorrhage - bridging or diploic veins
- Sub arachnoid haemorrhage - rupture on berry aneursym
- Tennis bal injury to eye - circulis iridis major
- Epistaxis - Sphenopalantine artery
- During tonsillectomy - para tonsilaar veins, tonsilar and ascending palantine artery
- Tracheostomy - isthemus and inferior thyroid vein
- Heamoptysis-bronchial artery
- Gastric ulcer- left gastric, splenic artery
- Duodenal ulcer - gastroduodenal artery
- Hemmorrhoids - submucous rectal venous plexus formed by superior rectal vein & inferior rectal vein
- Retropubic proastatectomy - dorsal venous plexus
- Hysterectomy - internal illac artery
- Menstruation - spiral arteries

Related Questions VASCULAR DISORDER

Types of Haemorrhage

Hemorrhaging is broken down into four classes

Class I Hemorrhage involves up to 15% of blood volume.
There is typically no change in vital signs and fluid resuscitation is not usually necessary.

Class II Hemorrhage involves 15-30% of total blood volume.
A patient is often tachycardic (rapid heart beat) with a reduction in the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
The body attempts to compensate with peripheral vasoconstriction. Skin may start to look pale and be cool to the touch.
The patient may exhibit slight changes in behavior.
Volume resuscitation with crystalloids (Saline solution or Lactated Ringer's solution) is all that is typically required. Blood transfusion is not usually required.

Class III Hemorrhage involves loss of 30-40% of circulating blood volume.
The patient's blood pressure drops, the heart rate increases, peripheral hypoperfusion (shock) with diminished capillary refill occurs, and the mental status worsens.
Fluid resuscitation with crystalloid and blood transfusion are usually necessary.

Class IV Hemorrhage involves loss of >40% of circulating blood volume.
The limit of the body's compensation is reached and aggressive resuscitation is required to prevent death.


Source of Haemorrhage

- Extra dural haemorrhage - middle meningeal artery
- Sub dural haemorrhage - bridging or diploic veins
- Sub arachnoid haemorrhage - rupture on berry aneursym
- Tennis bal injury to eye - circulis iridis major
- Epistaxis - Sphenopalantine artery
- During tonsillectomy - para tonsilaar veins, tonsilar and ascending palantine artery
- Tracheostomy - isthemus and inferior thyroid vein
- Heamoptysis-bronchial artery
- Gastric ulcer- left gastric, splenic artery
- Duodenal ulcer - gastroduodenal artery
- Hemmorrhoids - submucous rectal venous plexus formed by superior rectal vein & inferior rectal vein
- Retropubic proastatectomy - dorsal venous plexus
- Hysterectomy - internal illac artery
- Menstruation - spiral arteries