Anti-Diuretic Hormone Feedback
Anti-Diuretic Hormone Feedback
An anti-diruetic is a substance that decreases urine volume, and ADH is the primary example of it within the body. ADH is a hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary gland in response to increased plasma osmolarity (i.e., increased ion concentration in the blood), which is generally due to an increased concentration of ions relative to the volume of plasma, or decreased plasma volume.
The increased plasma osmolarity is sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus, which will stimulate the posterior pituitary gland to release ADH. ADH will then act on the nephrons of the kidneys to cause a decrease in plasma osmolarity and an increase in urine osmolarity.
ADH increases the permeability to water of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct, which are normally impermeable to water. This effect causes increased water reabsorption and retention and decreases the volume of urine produced relative to its ion content.
After ADH acts on the nephron to decrease plasma osmolarity (and leads to increased blood volume) and increase urine osmolarity, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus will inactivate, and ADH secretion will end. Due to this response, ADH secretion is considered to be a form of negative feedback.
Maintenance of Homeostasis
The kidneys maintain the homeostasis of several important internal conditions by controlling the excretion of substances out of the body.
Ions. The kidney can control the excretion of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and chloride ions into urine. In cases where these ions reach a higher than normal concentration, the kidneys can increase their excretion out of the body to return them to a normal level. Conversely, the kidneys can conserve these ions when they are present in lower than normal levels by allowing the ions to be reabsorbed into the blood during filtration. (See more about ions.)
pH. The kidneys monitor and regulate the levels of hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions in the blood to control blood pH. H+ ions are produced as a natural byproduct of the metabolism of dietary proteins and accumulate in the blood over time. The kidneys excrete excess H+ ions into urine for elimination from the body. The kidneys also conserve bicarbonate ions, which act as important pH buffers in the blood.
Osmolarity. The cells of the body need to grow in an isotonic environment in order to maintain their fluid and electrolyte balance. The kidneys maintain the body’s osmotic balance by controlling the amount of water that is filtered out of the blood and excreted into urine. When a person consumes a large amount of water, the kidneys reduce their reabsorption of water to allow the excess water to be excreted in urine. This results in the production of dilute, watery urine. In the case of the body being dehydrated, the kidneys reabsorb as much water as possible back into the blood to produce highly concentrated urine full of excreted ions and wastes. The changes in excretion of water are controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland to help the body retain water.
Blood Pressure. The kidneys monitor the body’s blood pressure to help maintain homeostasis. When blood pressure is elevated, the kidneys can help to reduce blood pressure by reducing the volume of blood in the body. The kidneys are able to reduce blood volume by reducing the reabsorption of water into the blood and producing watery, dilute urine. When blood pressure becomes too low, the kidneys can produce the enzyme renin to constrict blood vessels and produce concentrated urine, which allows more water to remain in the blood.
Normal Chemical Composition of Urine
Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with a minimum of these remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration:
Urea 9.3 g/L.
Chloride 1.87 g/L.
Sodium 1.17 g/L.
Potassium 0.750 g/L.
Creatinine 0.670 g/L .
Other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds (proteins, hormones, metabolites).
Urine is sterile until it reaches the urethra, where epithelial cells lining the urethra are colonized by facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods and cocci. Urea is essentially a processed form of ammonia that is non-toxic to mammals, unlike ammonia, which can be highly toxic. It is processed from ammonia and carbon dioxide in the liver.
The kidneys are the primary functional organ of the renal system.
They are essential in homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and the regulation of blood pressure (by maintaining salt and water balance).
They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood and remove wastes that are excreted through the urine.
They are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids, and will maintain the balance of these molecules in the body.
In addition, the kidneys produce hormones including calcitriol, erythropoietin, and the enzyme renin, which are involved in renal and hemotological physiological processes.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped, brown organs about the size of your fist. They are covered by the renal capsule, which is a tough capsule of fibrous connective tissue.
Right kidney being slightly lower than the left, and left kidney being located slightly more medial than the right.
The right kidneys lie just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver, the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen.
Resting on top of each kidney is an adrenal gland (adrenal meaning on top of renal), which are involved in some renal system processes despite being a primarily endocrine organ.
They are considered retroperitoneal, which means that they lie behind the peritoneum, the membrane lining of the abdominal cavity.
The renal artery branches off from the lower part of the aorta and provides the blood supply to the kidneys.
Renal veins take blood away from the kidneys into the inferior vena cava.
The ureters are structures that come out of the kidneys, bringing urine downward into the bladder.
Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys
There are three major regions of the kidney:
1. Renal cortex
2. Renal medulla
3. Renal pelvis
The renal cortex is a space between the medulla and the outer capsule.
The renal medulla contains the majority of the length of nephrons, the main functional component of the kidney that filters fluid from blood.
The renal pelvis connects the kidney with the circulatory and nervous systems from the rest of the body.
The kidneys are surrounded by a renal cortex
The cortex provides a space for arterioles and venules from the renal artery and vein, as well as the glomerular capillaries, to perfuse the nephrons of the kidney. Erythropotein, a hormone necessary for the synthesis of new red blood cells, is also produced in the renal cortex.
The medulla is the inner region of the parenchyma of the kidney. The medulla consists of multiple pyramidal tissue masses, called the renal pyramids, which are triangle structures that contain a dense network of nephrons.
At one end of each nephron, in the cortex of the kidney, is a cup-shaped structure called the Bowman's capsule. It surrounds a tuft of capillaries called the glomerulus that carries blood from the renal arteries into the nephron, where plasma is filtered through the capsule.
After entering the capsule, the filtered fluid flows along the proximal convoluted tubule to the loop of Henle and then to the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting ducts, which flow into the ureter. Each of the different components of the nephrons are selectively permeable to different molecules, and enable the complex regulation of water and ion concentrations in the body.
The renal pelvis contains the hilium. The hilum is the concave part of the bean-shape where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the kidney; it is also the point of exit for the ureters—the urine-bearing tubes that exit the kidney and empty into the urinary bladder. The renal pelvis connects the kidney to the rest of the body.
Supply of Blood and Nerves to the Kidneys
• The renal arteries branch off of the abdominal aorta and supply the kidneys with blood. The arterial supply of the kidneys varies from person to person, and there may be one or more renal arteries to supply each kidney.
• The renal veins are the veins that drain the kidneys and connect them to the inferior vena cava.
• The kidney and the nervous system communicate via the renal plexus. The sympathetic nervous system will trigger vasoconstriction and reduce renal blood flow, while parasympathetic nervous stimulation will trigger vasodilation and increased blood flow.
• Afferent arterioles branch into the glomerular capillaries, while efferent arterioles take blood away from the glomerular capillaries and into the interlobular capillaries that provide oxygen to the kidney.
• renal vein
The veins that drain the kidney and connect the kidney to the inferior vena cava.
• renal artery
These arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.
Urine is a waste byproduct formed from excess water and metabolic waste molecules during the process of renal system filtration. The primary function of the renal system is to regulate blood volume and plasma osmolarity, and waste removal via urine is essentially a convenient way that the body performs many functions using one process. Urine formation occurs during three processes:
During filtration, blood enters the afferent arteriole and flows into the glomerulus where filterable blood components, such as water and nitrogenous waste, will move towards the inside of the glomerulus, and nonfilterable components, such as cells and serum albumins, will exit via the efferent arteriole. These filterable components accumulate in the glomerulus to form the glomerular filtrate.
Normally, about 20% of the total blood pumped by the heart each minute will enter the kidneys to undergo filtration; this is called the filtration fraction. The remaining 80% of the blood flows through the rest of the body to facilitate tissue perfusion and gas exchange.
The next step is reabsorption, during which molecules and ions will be reabsorbed into the circulatory system. The fluid passes through the components of the nephron (the proximal/distal convoluted tubules, loop of Henle, the collecting duct) as water and ions are removed as the fluid osmolarity (ion concentration) changes. In the collecting duct, secretion will occur before the fluid leaves the ureter in the form of urine.
During secretion some substances±such as hydrogen ions, creatinine, and drugs—will be removed from the blood through the peritubular capillary network into the collecting duct. The end product of all these processes is urine, which is essentially a collection of substances that has not been reabsorbed during glomerular filtration or tubular reabsorbtion.
Kidneys receive about 20% of cardiac output , this is called Renal Blood Flow (RBF) which is approximatley 1.1 L of blood. Plasma in this flow is about 625 ml . It is called Renal Plasma Flow (RPF) .
About 20 % of Plasma entering the glomerular capillaries is filtered into the Bowman`s capsule .
Glomerular filtration rate is about 125 ml/min ( which means 7.5 L/hr and thus 180 L/day) This means that the kidney filters about 180 liters of plasma every day.
The urine flow is about 1ml/min ( about 1.5 liter /day) This means that kidney reabsorbs about 178.5 liters every day .
Filtration occurs through the filtration unit , which includes :
1- endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries , which are fenestrated . Fenestrae are quite small so they prevent filtration of blood cells and most of plasma proteins .
2- Glomerular basement membrane : contains proteoglycan that is negatively charged and repels the negatively charged plasma proteins that may pass the fenestrae due to their small molecular weight like albumin . so the membrane plays an important role in impairing filtration of albumin .
3- Epithelial cells of Bowman`s capsule that have podocytes , which interdigitate to form slits .
Many forces drive the glomerular filtration , which are :
1- Hydrostatic pressure of the capillary blood , which favours filtration . It is about 55 mmHg .
2- Oncotic pressure of the plasma proteins in the glomerular capillary ( opposes filtration ) . It is about 30 mm Hg .
3- Hydrostatic pressure of the Bowman`s capsule , which also opposes filtration. It is about 15 mmHg .
The net pressure is as follows :
Hydrostatic pressure of glomerular capillaries - ( Oncotic pressure of glomerular capillaries + Hydrostatic pressure of the Bowman capsule):
=10 mmHg .
Te glomerular filtration rate does not depend only on the net pressure , but also on an other value , known as filtration coefficient ( Kf) . The later depends on the surface area of the glomerular capillaries and the hydraulic conductivity of the glomerular capillaries.