Abnormalities

Abnormalities

Abnormalities

There are a number of tooth abnormalities relating to development.

Anodontia is a complete lack of tooth development, and hypodontia is a lack of some tooth development. Anodontia is rare, most often occurring in a condition called hipohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, while hypodontia is one of the most common developmental abnormalities, affecting 3.5–8.0% of the population (not including third molars). The absence of third molars is very common, occurring in 20–23% of the population, followed in prevalence by the second premolar and lateral incisor. Hypodontia is often associated with the absence of a dental lamina, which is vulnerable to environmental forces, such as infection and chemotherapy medications, and is also associated with many syndromes, such as Down syndrome and Crouzon syndrome.

Hyperdontia is the development of extraneous teeth. It occurs in 1–3% of Caucasians and is more frequent in Asians. About 86% of these cases involve a single extra tooth in the mouth, most commonly found in the maxilla, where the incisors are located. Hyperdontia is believed to be associated with an excess of dental lamina.

Dilaceration is an abnormal bend found on a tooth, and is nearly always associated with trauma that moves the developing tooth bud. As a tooth is forming, a force can move the tooth from its original position, leaving the rest of the tooth to form at an abnormal angle. Cysts or tumors adjacent to a tooth bud are forces known to cause dilaceration, as are primary (baby) teeth pushed upward by trauma into the gingiva where it moves the tooth bud of the permanent tooth.

Regional odontodysplasia is rare, but is most likely to occur in the maxilla and anterior teeth. The cause is unknown; a number of causes have been postulated, including a disturbance in the neural crest cells, infection, radiation therapy, and a decrease in vascular supply (the most widely held hypothesis).Teeth affected by regional odontodysplasia never erupt into the mouth, have small crowns, are yellow-brown, and have irregular shapes. The appearance of these teeth in radiographs is translucent and "wispy," resulting in the nickname "ghost teeth"

Related Questions Oral Embryology

 

Maxillary (upper) teeth

Primary teeth

Central
incisor

Lateral
incisor


Canine

First
molar

Second
molar

Initial calcification

14 wk

16 wk

17 wk

15.5 wk

19 wk

Crown completed

1.5 mo

2.5 mo

9 mo

6 mo

11 mo

Root completed

1.5 yr

2 yr

3.25 yr

2.5 yr

3 yr

 

 Mandibular (lower) teeth 

Initial calcification

14 wk

16 wk

17 wk

15.5 wk

18 wk

Crown completed

2.5 mo

3 mo

9 mo

5.5 mo

10 mo

Root completed

1.5 yr

1.5 yr

3.25 yr

2.5 yr

3 yr

 

 

 

 

 

 

Classification of Cementum

  1. Embryologically

Primary and secondary


2. According to cellular component

Acellular: Thin, Amorphous, First layer to seal the dentin tubules

Cellular: Thick, Better structure, Apical surface

Layers of cellular and acellular cementum alternate (randomly)


3. Based on the origin of the collagenous matrix
Extrinsic
Intrinsic
Mixed

4. Combined classification
a. Primary acellular intinsic fiber cementum
b. Primary acellualar extrinsic fiber cementum
c. Secondary cellular intrinsic fiber cementum
d. Secondary cellular mixed fiber cementum
e. Acellular afibrillar cementum

5. Depending on the location and patterning
Intermediate and mixed stratified cementum

Participating Cells

Cementoblasts

Active
Cells are round, plump with basophilic cytoplasm (rough endoplasmic reticulum)
Inactive
Cells have little cytoplasm
Cementocytes

  1. Cementocyte lacuna
  2. cementocyte canaliculus

Cells have fewer organelles compared to cementoblasts. They are found in lacunae and have numerous processes toward the periodontal ligament. Eventually they die due to avascularity

Cementicles

a) free
b) attached
c) embedded

INNERVATION OF THE DENTIN-PULP COMPLEX

  1. Dentine Pulp
  2. Dentin
  3. Nerve Fibre Bundle
  4. Nerve fibres

The nerve bundles entering the tooth pulp consist principally of sensory afferent fibers from the trigeminal nerve and sympathetic branches from the superior cervical ganglion. There are non-myelinated (C fibers) and myelinated (less than non, A-delta, A-beta) fibers. Some nerve endings terminate on or in association with the odontoblasts and others in the predentinal tubules of the crown. Few fibers are found among odontoblasts of the root.
In the cell-free zone one can find the plexus of Raschkow.

The periodontium, which is the supporting structure of a tooth, consists of the cementum, periodontal ligaments, gingiva, and alveolar bone. Cementum is the only one of these that is a part of a tooth. Alveolar bone surrounds the roots of teeth to provide support and creates what is commonly called a "socket". Periodontal ligaments connect the alveolar bone to the cementum, and the gingiva is the surrounding tissue visible in the mouth.

Periodontal ligaments

Histology of the Periodontal Ligament (PDL)

Embryogenesis of the periodontal ligament
The PDL forms from the dental follicle shortly after root development begins
The periodontal ligament is characterized by connective tissue. The thinnest portion is at the middle third of the root. Its width decreases with age. It is a tissue with a high turnover rate.

PULP

Coronal

Occupies and resembles the crown,

Contains the pulp horns

It decreases in size with age

Radicular

Occupies roots

Contains the apical foramen

It decreases in size with age

Accessory apical canals

PULP FUNCTIONS

Inductive: The pulp anlage initiates tooth formation and probably induces the dental organ to become a particular type of tooth.

Formative: Pulp odontoblasts develop the organic matrix and function in its calcification.

Nutritive: Nourishment of dentin through the odontoblasts.

Protective: Sensory nerves in the tooth respond almost always with PAIN to all stimuli (heat, cold, pressure, operative procedures, chamical agents).

Defensive or reparative: It responds to irritation by producing reparative dentin. The response to stimuli is inflammation.

 Histologically the pulp consists of delicate collagen fibers, blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves and cells. A histologic section of the pulp reveals four cellular zones:

Odontoblastic

Cell-free (Weil)

Cell-rich

Pulp core