Cement Applications

Cement Applications

Root canal sealers

Applications

Cementation of silver cone gutta-percha point
Paste filling material

Types

Zinc oxide-eugenol cement types
Noneugenol cement types
Therapeutic cement types

properties

Physical-radiopacity
Chemical-insolubility
Mechanical-flow; tensile strength
Biologic-inertness

Gingival tissue packs

Application-provide temporary displacement of gingival tissues
Composition-slow setting zinc oxide-eugenol cement mixed with cotton twills for texture and strength


Surgical dressings
1.Application-gingival covering after periodontal surgery
2. Composition-modified zinc oxide-eugenol cement (containing tannic, acid. rosin, and various oils)

Orthodontic cements

Application-cementation of orthodontic bands
Composition-zinc phosphate cement 

Manipulation

Zinc phosphate types are routinely mixed with cold or frozen mixing slab to extend the working time
Enamel bonding agent types use acid etching for improved bonding
Band, bracket, or cement removal requires special care
 

Related Questions Dental Cements

Cement liners

Applications (if remaining dentin thickness is <0.5 mm)

o    Used for thermal insulation where cavity preparation is close to the pulp
o    Used for delivering medicaments to the pulp

•    Calcium hydroxide stimulates reparative dentin or
•    Eugenol relieves pain by desensitizing nerves
•    Used to deliver F ion to enamel and dentin

Components

o    Paste of calcium hydroxide reactant powder, ethyl toluene sulfonamide dispersant, zinc oxide filler, and zinc stearate radiopacifier
o    Paste of glycol salicylate reactant liquid, titanium dioxide filler powder, and calcium tungstenate radiopacifier

Reaction

Chemical reaction of calcium ions with salicylate to form methylsalicylate salts Moisture absorbed to allow calcium hydroxide to dissociate into ions to react with salicylate Mixture sets from outside surface to inside as water diffuses

Manipulation

Dentin should not be dehydrated or material will not setMix drop of each paste together for 5 secondsApply material to dentin and allow I to 2 minutes to set

Properties

o    Physical-good thermal and electrical insulator
o    Chemical-poor resistance to water solubility and may dissolve
o    Mechanical-low compressive strength (100 to 500 psi)
o    Biologic-releases calcium hydroxide constituents, which diffuse toward the pulp and stimulate
o    reparative dentin formation

Temporary Filling Materials

Applications / Use

While waiting for lab fabrication of cast restoration
While observing reaction of pulp tissues


Objectives

Provide pulpal protection
Provide medication to reduce pulpal inflammation
Maintain the tooth position with an aesthetic restoration

Classification

Temporary filling cements
Temporary filling resins


Components

Temporary filling cements

1. Zinc oxide-eugenol cement with cotton fibers added
2. Polyme r powder-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol cement

Temporary filling resins

•    MMA / PMMA filling materials
•    Polyamide filling materials
•    BIS-GMA filling materials
 

Glass Ionomer Cements

Applications

a. Class V restorations-resin-modified glass ionomers for geriatric dentistry
b. Class II restorations-resin-modified glass ionomers, metal-modified glass ionomers in pediatric dentistry
c. Class III restorations-resin-modified glass ionomers
d. permanent cementing of inlays, crowns, bridges, and/or orthodontic band/brackets. In addition, it can be used as a cavity liner and as a base.

Classification by composition

a. Glass ionomer-limited use
b. Metal-modified glass ionomer-limited use
c. Resin-modified glass ionomer-popular use


Components

a. Powder-aluminosilicate glass
b. Liquid-water solution of copolymers (or acrylic acid with maleic, tartaric, or itaconic acids) and water-soluble monomers (e.g., HEMA)

Reaction (may involve several reactions and stages of setting)

a. Glass ionomer reaction (acid-base reaction of polyacid and ions released from aluminosilicate glass particles)
- Calcium, aluminum, fluoride, and other ions released by outside of powder particle dissolving in acidic liquid
- Calcium ions initially cross-link acid functional copolymer molecules
- Calcium cross-links are replaced in 24 to 48 hours by aluminum ion cross-links, with increased hardening of system
- If there are no other reactants in the cement (e.g., resin modification), then protection from saliva is required during the first 24 hours

b. Polymerization reaction (polymerization of double bonds from water-soluble monomers and/or pendant groups on copolymer to form cross-linked matrix)
- Polymerization reaction can be initiated with chemical (self-curing) or light-curing steps
- Cross-linked polymer matrix ultimately interpenetrates glass ionomer matrix 


Manipulation

a. Mixing-powder and liquid components may be manually mixed or may be precapsulated for mechanical mixing
b. Placement-mixture is normally syringed into place
c. Finishing-can be immediate if system is resin-modified (but otherwise must be delayed 24 to 72 hours until aluminum ion replacement reaction is complete)
d. Sealing-sealer is applied to smoothen the surface (and to protect against moisture affecting the glass ionomer reaction)

Properties

1. Physical

-Good thermal and electrical insulation
-Better radiopacity than most composites
-Linear coefficient of thermal expansion and contraction is closer to tooth structure than for composites (but is less well matched for resin-modified systems)
-Aesthetics of resin-modified systems are competitive with composites

2. Chemical

-Reactive acid side groups of copolymer molecules may produce chemical bonding to tooth structure
-Fluoride ions are released
(1) Rapid release at first due to excess fluoride ions in matrix
(2) Slow release after 7  to 30 days because of slow diffusion of fluoride ions out of aluminosilicate particles

-Solubility resistance of resin-modified systems is close to that of composites

3. Mechanical properties

-Compressive strength of resin-modified systems is much better than that of traditional glass ionomers but not quite as strong as composites
- Glass ionomers are more brittle than composites

4. Biologic properties

- Ingredients are biologically kind to the pulp
- Fluoride ion release discourages secondary canes
 

Suspension liners

Applications

o    Dentin lining under amalgam restorations
o    Stimulation of reparative dentin formation

Components

-Calcium hydroxide powder
-Water
-Modifiers

Manipulation

Used as W/P or pastes Paint thin film on dentin → Use forced air for 15 to 30 seconds to dry → Film is thicker (15 µm) than varnishes → Do not use on enamel or cavosurface margins

Properties

Physical

-Electrically insulating barrier
-Too thin to be thermally insulating

Chemical

-High basicity for calcium hydroxide (pH is II)
-Dissolves readily in water and should not be used at exposed cavosurface margins or gaps may form

Mechanical - weak film

Biologic - calcium hydroxide dissolves, diffuses, and stimulates odontoblasts to occlude dentin tubules below cavity preparation
 

ZINC OXIDE AND EUGENOL 

This material is used for many dental purposes ranging from temporary restorative material to pulp capping. The material is composed of a powder that is basically zinc oxide and a liquid that is called eugenol.

Chemical Composition.

The powder must contain between 70 and 100 percent zinc oxide. The manufacturer may add hydrogenated resins to increase strength and zinc acetate to hasten the set. 

Eugenol is usually derived from oil of cloves. The oil of cloves contains more eugenol (82 percent) Eugenol is an obtundent (pain-relieving agent). It is a clear liquid that gradually changes to amber when exposed to light. 

Physical Properties. 
This material relieves pain, makes tissue less sensitive to pain, is slightly antiseptic, and is low in thermal conductivity. It provides a good marginal seal when placed in tooth cavities. The crushing strength (compression strength) of pure zinc oxide and eugenol is about 2,000 psi, which is low in comparison to other cements. The addition of hydrogenated resin increases the crushing strength to 5,000 psi. 

CLINICAL USES OF ZINC OXIDE AND EUGENOL 

Treatment Restoration. It helps prevent pulpal irritation in carious teeth, lost restorations, advanced caries, or pulpitis. This dental material also exerts a palliative effect on the pulp. 

Temporary Cementing Medium. Zinc oxide and eugenol is used as a temporary cementing medium for crowns, inlays, and fixed partial dentures. 

Intermediate Base. Zinc oxide and eugenol is used as an intermediate base. This material provides insulation between metallic restorations and vital tooth structure. Because of the low crushing strength, its use is sometimes contraindicated. 

Surgical Packing or Dressing. The surgical dressing applied and adapted over the gingival area after a gingivectomy. This dressing protects the area and makes the tissue less sensitive.