Cement Applications

Cement Applications

Root canal sealers

Applications

Cementation of silver cone gutta-percha point
Paste filling material

Types

Zinc oxide-eugenol cement types
Noneugenol cement types
Therapeutic cement types

properties

Physical-radiopacity
Chemical-insolubility
Mechanical-flow; tensile strength
Biologic-inertness

Gingival tissue packs

Application-provide temporary displacement of gingival tissues
Composition-slow setting zinc oxide-eugenol cement mixed with cotton twills for texture and strength


Surgical dressings
1.Application-gingival covering after periodontal surgery
2. Composition-modified zinc oxide-eugenol cement (containing tannic, acid. rosin, and various oils)

Orthodontic cements

Application-cementation of orthodontic bands
Composition-zinc phosphate cement 

Manipulation

Zinc phosphate types are routinely mixed with cold or frozen mixing slab to extend the working time
Enamel bonding agent types use acid etching for improved bonding
Band, bracket, or cement removal requires special care
 

Related Questions Dental Cements

Temporary Filling Materials

Applications / Use

While waiting for lab fabrication of cast restoration
While observing reaction of pulp tissues


Objectives

Provide pulpal protection
Provide medication to reduce pulpal inflammation
Maintain the tooth position with an aesthetic restoration

Classification

Temporary filling cements
Temporary filling resins


Components

Temporary filling cements

1. Zinc oxide-eugenol cement with cotton fibers added
2. Polyme r powder-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol cement

Temporary filling resins

•    MMA / PMMA filling materials
•    Polyamide filling materials
•    BIS-GMA filling materials
 

ZINC OXIDE AND EUGENOL 

This material is used for many dental purposes ranging from temporary restorative material to pulp capping. The material is composed of a powder that is basically zinc oxide and a liquid that is called eugenol.

Chemical Composition.

The powder must contain between 70 and 100 percent zinc oxide. The manufacturer may add hydrogenated resins to increase strength and zinc acetate to hasten the set. 

Eugenol is usually derived from oil of cloves. The oil of cloves contains more eugenol (82 percent) Eugenol is an obtundent (pain-relieving agent). It is a clear liquid that gradually changes to amber when exposed to light. 

Physical Properties. 
This material relieves pain, makes tissue less sensitive to pain, is slightly antiseptic, and is low in thermal conductivity. It provides a good marginal seal when placed in tooth cavities. The crushing strength (compression strength) of pure zinc oxide and eugenol is about 2,000 psi, which is low in comparison to other cements. The addition of hydrogenated resin increases the crushing strength to 5,000 psi. 

CLINICAL USES OF ZINC OXIDE AND EUGENOL 

Treatment Restoration. It helps prevent pulpal irritation in carious teeth, lost restorations, advanced caries, or pulpitis. This dental material also exerts a palliative effect on the pulp. 

Temporary Cementing Medium. Zinc oxide and eugenol is used as a temporary cementing medium for crowns, inlays, and fixed partial dentures. 

Intermediate Base. Zinc oxide and eugenol is used as an intermediate base. This material provides insulation between metallic restorations and vital tooth structure. Because of the low crushing strength, its use is sometimes contraindicated. 

Surgical Packing or Dressing. The surgical dressing applied and adapted over the gingival area after a gingivectomy. This dressing protects the area and makes the tissue less sensitive. 
 

Suspension liners

Applications

o    Dentin lining under amalgam restorations
o    Stimulation of reparative dentin formation

Components

-Calcium hydroxide powder
-Water
-Modifiers

Manipulation

Used as W/P or pastes Paint thin film on dentin → Use forced air for 15 to 30 seconds to dry → Film is thicker (15 µm) than varnishes → Do not use on enamel or cavosurface margins

Properties

Physical

-Electrically insulating barrier
-Too thin to be thermally insulating

Chemical

-High basicity for calcium hydroxide (pH is II)
-Dissolves readily in water and should not be used at exposed cavosurface margins or gaps may form

Mechanical - weak film

Biologic - calcium hydroxide dissolves, diffuses, and stimulates odontoblasts to occlude dentin tubules below cavity preparation
 

Solution Liners (Varnishes)

Applications 

o    Enamel and dentin lining for amalgam restorations
o    Enamel and dentin lining for cast restorations that are used with non adhesive cements
o    Coating over materials that are moisture sensitive during setting

Components of copal resin varnish

o    90% solvent mixture (e.g., chloroform, acetone, and alcohol)
o    10% dissolved copal resin

Reaction
 
Varnish sets physically by drying → Solvent loss occurs in 5 to 15 seconds (a film forms the same way as drying fingernail polish)

Manipulation

Apply thin coat over dentin. enamel. And margins of the cavity preparation → Dry lightly with air for 5 seconds Apply a second thin coat → Final thickness is 1 to 5 µ.m

Properties

o    Physical 

Electrically insulating barrier that prevents shocks. Too thin to be thermally insulating. Decreases degree of percolation attributable to thermal expansion

o    Chemical

Forms temporary barrier that prevents microleakage into dentinal tubules until secondary dentin formation occurs. Decreases initial tendency for electrochemical corrosion

o     Mechanical

Very weak and brittle film that has limited lifetime 
Film adheres to smear layer

Cement liners

Applications (if remaining dentin thickness is <0.5 mm)

o    Used for thermal insulation where cavity preparation is close to the pulp
o    Used for delivering medicaments to the pulp

•    Calcium hydroxide stimulates reparative dentin or
•    Eugenol relieves pain by desensitizing nerves
•    Used to deliver F ion to enamel and dentin

Components

o    Paste of calcium hydroxide reactant powder, ethyl toluene sulfonamide dispersant, zinc oxide filler, and zinc stearate radiopacifier
o    Paste of glycol salicylate reactant liquid, titanium dioxide filler powder, and calcium tungstenate radiopacifier

Reaction

Chemical reaction of calcium ions with salicylate to form methylsalicylate salts Moisture absorbed to allow calcium hydroxide to dissociate into ions to react with salicylate Mixture sets from outside surface to inside as water diffuses

Manipulation

Dentin should not be dehydrated or material will not setMix drop of each paste together for 5 secondsApply material to dentin and allow I to 2 minutes to set

Properties

o    Physical-good thermal and electrical insulator
o    Chemical-poor resistance to water solubility and may dissolve
o    Mechanical-low compressive strength (100 to 500 psi)
o    Biologic-releases calcium hydroxide constituents, which diffuse toward the pulp and stimulate
o    reparative dentin formation