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Glass Ionomer Cements


a. Class V restorations-resin-modified glass ionomers for geriatric dentistry
b. Class II restorations-resin-modified glass ionomers, metal-modified glass ionomers in pediatric dentistry
c. Class III restorations-resin-modified glass ionomers
d. permanent cementing of inlays, crowns, bridges, and/or orthodontic band/brackets. In addition, it can be used as a cavity liner and as a base.

Classification by composition

a. Glass ionomer-limited use
b. Metal-modified glass ionomer-limited use
c. Resin-modified glass ionomer-popular use


a. Powder-aluminosilicate glass
b. Liquid-water solution of copolymers (or acrylic acid with maleic, tartaric, or itaconic acids) and water-soluble monomers (e.g., HEMA)

Reaction (may involve several reactions and stages of setting)

a. Glass ionomer reaction (acid-base reaction of polyacid and ions released from aluminosilicate glass particles)
- Calcium, aluminum, fluoride, and other ions released by outside of powder particle dissolving in acidic liquid
- Calcium ions initially cross-link acid functional copolymer molecules
- Calcium cross-links are replaced in 24 to 48 hours by aluminum ion cross-links, with increased hardening of system
- If there are no other reactants in the cement (e.g., resin modification), then protection from saliva is required during the first 24 hours

b. Polymerization reaction (polymerization of double bonds from water-soluble monomers and/or pendant groups on copolymer to form cross-linked matrix)
- Polymerization reaction can be initiated with chemical (self-curing) or light-curing steps
- Cross-linked polymer matrix ultimately interpenetrates glass ionomer matrix 


a. Mixing-powder and liquid components may be manually mixed or may be precapsulated for mechanical mixing
b. Placement-mixture is normally syringed into place
c. Finishing-can be immediate if system is resin-modified (but otherwise must be delayed 24 to 72 hours until aluminum ion replacement reaction is complete)
d. Sealing-sealer is applied to smoothen the surface (and to protect against moisture affecting the glass ionomer reaction)


1. Physical

-Good thermal and electrical insulation
-Better radiopacity than most composites
-Linear coefficient of thermal expansion and contraction is closer to tooth structure than for composites (but is less well matched for resin-modified systems)
-Aesthetics of resin-modified systems are competitive with composites

2. Chemical

-Reactive acid side groups of copolymer molecules may produce chemical bonding to tooth structure
-Fluoride ions are released
(1) Rapid release at first due to excess fluoride ions in matrix
(2) Slow release after 7  to 30 days because of slow diffusion of fluoride ions out of aluminosilicate particles

-Solubility resistance of resin-modified systems is close to that of composites

3. Mechanical properties

-Compressive strength of resin-modified systems is much better than that of traditional glass ionomers but not quite as strong as composites
- Glass ionomers are more brittle than composites

4. Biologic properties

- Ingredients are biologically kind to the pulp
- Fluoride ion release discourages secondary canes


All local anesthetics currently used in dentistry today produce some degree of vasodilatation. This

characteristic results in the increased vascularity of the injected site and results in a shorter duration of local

anesthetic action due enhanced uptake of the local anesthetic into the bloodstream.

- Using a “chemical tourniquet” to prolong the effect of local anesthetics

- The vasoconstrictive action of epinephrine reduces uptake of local anesthetic resulting in a significant increase in the duration of local anesthetic action.

- the addition of vasoconstrictors in local anesthetic solutions will:

1. Prolong the effect of the local anesthetic

2. Increase the depth of anesthesia

3. Reduces the plasma concentration of the local anesthetic

4. Reduces the incidence of systemic toxicity

5. Reduces bleeding at surgical site

Local anesthetics containing epinephrine produce:

1. Localized


 i. Hemostasis at surgical site

 ii. Ischemia of localized tissue

2. Systemic


 i. Increased heart rate (β1)

 ii. Increased force and rate of contraction (β 1)

 iii. Increased cardiac output

 iv. Increases oxygen demand

 v. Dilation of coronary arteries

 vi. Decreases threshold for arrhythmias 


 i. Bronchodilation (β2 )

i. Predominately vasodilation (fight or flight response) (β 2 )


i. Minimal direct effect due to difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier. Most effects on the CNS are manifestations of the vasoconstrictor on other organs such as the heart.

Concentrations of vasoconstrictors

1. Epinephrine The most commonly used epinephrine dilution in dentistry today is 1:100000. However it appears that a 1:200000 concentration is comparable in effect to the 1:100000 concentration.

2. Levonordefrin Levonordefrin is a synthetic compound very similar in structure to epinephrine. It is the only alternate choice of vasoconstrictor to epinephrine. It is prepared as a 1:20000 (0.05mg/ml)(50 mcg/ml) concentration with 2 % mepivacaine.

Cardiovascular considerations

The plasma concentration of epinephrine in a patient at rest is 39 pg/ml.1 The injection of 1 cartridge of lidocaine 1:100000 epinephrine intraorally results in a doubling of the plasma concentration of epinephrine.

The administration of 15 mcg of epinephrine  increased heart rate an average of 25 beats/min with some individuals experiencing an increase of 70 beats/min.

Clinical considerations

It is well documented that reduced amounts of epinephrine should be administered to patients with:



It is generally accepted that the dose of epinephrine should be limited to 0.04 mg (40 mcg) for patients that have these medical diagnoses


A) Labial, lingual & buccal frenum

- It is fibrous band extending from the labial aspect of the residual alveolar ridge to the lip containing a band of the fibrous connective tissue the that helps in attachment of the orbicularis oris muscle.
- It is quite sensitive hence the denture should have an appropriate labial notch.
- The fibers of buccinator are attached to the buccal frenum.
- Should be relieved to prevent displacement of the denture during function.
- The lingual frenum relief should be provided in the anterior portion of the lingual flange. 
- This anterior portion of the lingual flange called sub-lingual crescent area.
- The lingual notch of the denture should be well adapted otherwise it will affect the denture stability.
B) Labial & buccal vestibule
-     The labial sulcus runs from the labial frenum to the buccal frenum on each side.
-     Mentalis muscle is quite active in this region.
-     The buccal sulcus extends posteriorly from the buccal frenum to outside back corner of the retromolar region.
-     Area maximization can be safely done here as because the fibers of the buccinator runs parallel to the border and hence displacing action due to buccinator during its contraction is slight.

-     The impression is the widest in this region.
C) Alveololingual sulcus

-     Between lingual frenum to retromylohyoid curtain.
-     Overextension causes soreness and instability.

It can be divided into three parts:
i) Anterior part :
-     From lingual frenum to mylohyoid ridge
-     The shallowest portion(least height) of the lingual flange
ii) Middle region :
-     From the premylohyoid fossa to the the distal end of the mylohyoid region
iii) Posterior portion :
-     From the end of the mylohyoid ridge end to the retromylohyoid curtain
-     Provides for a valuable undercut area so important retention
-     Overextension causes soreness and instability
-     Proper recording gives typical S –form of the lingual flange
D) Retromolar pad
-     Pear-shaped triangular soft pad of tissue at the distal end of the lower ridge is referred to as the retromolar pad.
-     It is an important structure, which forms the posterior seal of the mandibular denture.
-     The denture base should extend up to 2/3rd of the retromolar pad triangle.

E) Pterygomandibular raphe

A) Primary stress bearing area / Supporting area
1.    Buccal shelf area
-     Extends from buccal frenum to retromolar pad.
-     Between external oblique ridge and crest of alveolar ridge.

Its boundaries are:
1.    Medially the crest of the ridge
2.    Laterally the external oblique ridge
3.    Distally the retromolar pad
4.    Mesially the buccal frenum
The width of this area increases as the alveolar resorption continues.
B) Secondary stress bearing area / Supporting area
1.    Residual alveolar ridge
-     Buccal and lingual slopes are secondary stress bearing areas.
A) Mylohyoid ridge
-     Attachment for the mylohyoid muscle.
-     Running along the lingual surface of the mandible.
-     Anteriorly: the ridge lies close to the inferior border of the mandible.
-     Posteriorly it lies close to the residual ridge.
-     Covered by the thin mucosa which may be traumatized by denture base hence it should be relieved.
-     The extension of the lingual flange is to be beyond the palpable position of the mylohyoid ridge but not in the undercut.
B) Mental foramen
-     Lies on the external surface of the mandible in between the 1st and the 2nd premolar region.
-     It should be relieved specially in case it lies close to the residual alveolar ridge due to ridge resorption to prevent parasthesia.
C) Genial tubercle
-     Area of muscle attachment (Genioglossus and Geniohyoid).
-     Lies away from the crest of the ridge.
-     Prominent in resorbed ridges therefore adequate relief to be provided.
D) Torus mandibularis
-     Abnormal bony prominence.
-     Bilaterally on the lingual side near the premolar area.
-     Covered by thin mucosa so it should be relieved

1.Rhythmicity ( Chronotropism ) :  means the ability of heart to beat regularly ( due to repetitive and stable depolarization and repolarization )  . Rhythmicity of heart is a myogenic in origin , because cardiac muscles are automatically excited muscles and does not depend on the nervous stimulus to initiate excitation and then contraction . The role of nerves is limited to the regulation of the heart rate and not to initiate the beat.

There are many evidences that approve the myogenic and not neurogenic origin of the rhythmicity of cardiac muscle . For example :
-  transplanted heart continues to beat regularly without any nerve supply.
-  Embryologically the heart starts to beat before reaching any nerves to them.
-  Some drugs that paralyze the nerves ( such as cocaine ) do not stop the heart in given doses.

Spontaneous rhythmicity of the cardiac muscle due to the existence of excitatory - conductive system , which is composed of self- exciting non-contractile cardiac muscle cells . The SA node of the mentioned system excites in a rate , that is the most rapid among the other components of the system ( 110 beats /minute ) , which makes it the controller or ( the pacemaker ) of the cardiac rhythm of the entire heart.

Mechanism , responsible for self- excitation in the SA node and the excitatory conductive system  is due to the following properties of the cell membrane of theses cells :
1- Non-gated sodium channels
2- Decreased permeability to potassium
3- existence of slow and fast calcium channels.

These properties enable the cations ( sodium through the none-gated sodium voltage channels , calcium through calcium slow channels) to enter the cell and depolarize the cell membrane without need for external stimulus.

The resting membrane potential of non-contractile cardiac cell is -55 - -60 millivolts ( less than that of excitable nerve cells (-70) ) . 

The threshold is also less negative than that of nerve cells ( -40 millivolts ).

The decreased permeability to potassium from its side decrease the eflux  of potassium during the repolarization phase of the pacemaker potential . All of these factors give the pacemaker potential its characteristic shape

Repeating of the pacemaker potential between the action potentials of contractile muscle cells is the cause of spontaneous rhythmicity of cardiac muscle cells.

Factors , affecting the rhythmicity of the cardiac muscle :

I. Factors that increase the rate ( positive chronotropic factors) :
1. sympathetic stimulation : as its neurotransmitter norepinephrine increases the membrane permeability to sodium and calcium.
2. moderate warming : moderate warming increases temperature by 10 beats for each 1 Fahrenheit degree increase in body temperature, this due to decrease in permeability to potassium ions in pacemaker membrane by moderate increase in temperature.
3. Catecholaminic drugs have positive chronotropic effect.
4. Thyroid hormones : have positive chronotropic effect , due to the fact that these drugs increase the sensitivity of adrenergic receptors to adrenaline and noreadrenaline .
5. mild hypoxia.
6. mild alkalemia : mild alkalemia decreases the negativity of the resting potential.
7. hypocalcemia.
8. mild hypokalemia

II. Factors that decrease rhythmicity ( negative chronotropic):

1.Vagal stimulation : the basal level of vagal stimulation inhibits the sinus rhythm and decrease it from 110-75 beats/ minute. This effect due to increasing the permeability of the cardiac muscle cell to potassium , which causes rapid potassium eflux , which increases the negativity inside the cardiac cells (hyperpolarization ).
2. moderate cooling
3. severe warming : due to cardiac damage , as a result of intercellular protein denaturation. Excessive cooling on the other hand decrease metabolism and stops rhythmicity.
4. Cholenergic drugs ( such as methacholine , pilocarpine..etc) have negative chronotropic effect.
5. Digitalis : these drugs causes hyperpolarization . This effect is similar to that of vagal stimulation.
6. Hypercapnia ( excessive CO2 production )
7. Acidemia.
8. hyper- and hyponatremia .
9. hyperkalemia
10. hypercalcemia
11. Typhoid or diphteria toxins.

Radiation Biology

-X- and g -rays are called sparsely ionizing because along the tracks of the electrons set in motion, primary ionizing events are well separated in space.

Alpha-particles and neutrons are densely ionizing because the tracks consist of dense columns of ionization.

X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, and protons are all low LET forms of radiation in that their density of ionization is sparse. In general, they penetrate tissues deeply and result in less intracellular radiation injury.

High LET forms of radiation, such as heavy nuclear particles (e.g. fast neutrons), penetrate tissues less deeply and cause more radiation injury to biologic material.

Cells are most sensitive to Radiation when:

- they are actively proliferating.
- they are undifferentiated.

Exceptions to this Law:
- lymphocyte
- Oocyte

X-rays and gamma rays show latent injury that is residual tissue damage even after the initial radiation reaction is subsided.
Proteins tend to be more radiosensitive than carbohydrates and lipids.
Most radiosensitive tissue-small lymphocyte

Most radioresistant tissue- brain

Embryonic, immature or poorly differentiated tissues are more easily injured by radiation, but they also show greater recovery properties.

All cells show increased susceptibility to radiation at the time of mitotic division and if the cells are irradiated during the resting phase, mitosis is delayed or inhibited.

- In general, cells are most radiosensitive in late M and G2 phases and most resistant in late S.

- for cells with a longer cell cycle time and a significantly long G1 phase, there is a second peak of resistance late in G1

- the pattern of resistance and sensitivity correlates with the level of sulfhydryl compounds in the cell. Sulfhydryls are natural radioprotectors and tend to be at their highest levels in S and at their lowest near mitosis.

- To produce its effect. Oxygen must be present during the radiation exposure or at least during the lifetime of the free radicals (10-5 sec).

- Mandible is more ssceptible to radiation injury than maxilla due to the denser structure and poorer blood supply.

- Salivary glands though an organ with a low turnover rate, was unusually sensitive to radiation

- Liposarcoma tumors are the most radiosensitive soft tissue tumors

- Exophytic tumors are usually more easily controlled with radiation while infiltrative and ulcerative lesions are more radioresistant.

The infiltrative and ulcerative lesions are more likely to be larger than clinically apparent and contain a larger proportion of hypoxic cells.